THE BATTLE OF BADR
The Battle of Badr was fought on 17th Ramadhan, 2 Hijri. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ with his companions(Radi Allaahu Anhum) defeated the army of Quraysh led by Abu Jahl. The results of the battle shock the infidels to its foundations. This day is remembered in The Holy Quran as the Day of Furqaan. This day Allah Ta'ala differentiated between the Truth and the Falsehood.
After Prophet Muhammad ﷺ had migrated from Mecca to Madina, the infidels of Mecca still did not leave Prophet ﷺ in harmony. They conspired against Prophet ﷺ and prepared themselves for war against Prophet ﷺ and the Muslims. The infidels of Mecca, under the leadership of Abu Sufyan Ibne Harb sent a caravan to Shaam (Syria) to trade, The profits made from the trade was to be used to buy weapons, and prepare for war against the Muslims. To travel from Mecca to Syria and back, they had to travel through Madina. A few days before the battle, Prophet ﷺ learnt of the return of the caravan from Syria. Prophet ﷺ ordered the Muslims of Madina to prepare themselves for the course of Islam. He ﷺ did not openly mention a war but mentioned that with the will of Allah Ta'ala, they might get the spoils of war.
More or less three hundred and thirteen companions(Radi Allaahu Anhum) of Prophet ﷺ came out for the call of duty. The generally accepted number is three hundred and thirteen. They were not well equipped for a major conflict nor fully prepared. The army had only two horses and seventy camels. They made groups of three and took turns to ride the camels.
Abu Sufyan learnt of the plan of the Muslim army to ambush his caravan. He changed course and took a longer route away from Madina, and sent a message to Mecca for assistance. The infidels of Mecca were ready beforehand to attack the Muslims of Madina.
Three days before the battle, an aunt of Prophet ﷺ had a dream where she saw a man standing on a mountain, who threw a stone, which broke into pieces and landed on the houses of the infidels in Mecca. She told her dream to her brother, Hazrat Abbas Ibne Mutallib(Radi Allaahu Anhu), who asked her not to tell her dream to anyone else. But somehow the news of this dream reached Mecca. Abu Sufyan's messenger had also reached Mecca and informed of Prophet ﷺ and his companion's(Radi Allahu Anhum) plan to intercept the caravan of Abu Sufyan. The infidels of Mecca took measures to protect their wealth. However, the caravan of Abu Sufyan reached Mecca safely.
Abu Jahl became adamant to attack the Muslims of Madina, despite being advised against it by an infidel Umayyah Ibne Khalaf. (He was a chief opponent of Islam, and Master of Hazrat Bilal(Radi Allaahu Anhu), whom he tortured for accepting Islam.)
Abu Jahl wanted to go to Badr to socialise and scare the Muslims away.
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was already preparing his men, and said that the caravan of Abu Sufyan had escaped, but the infidels of Mecca have arrived with an army. Prophet ﷺ asked his companions(Radi Allaahu Anhum) for advice. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq and Hazrat Umar Farook e Azam(Radi Allaahu Anhum) said, 'O Messenger of Allah! Proceed where Allah directs you to, for we are with you'. Prophet ﷺ still insisted advice from the companions(Radi Allaahu Anhum), as those who had spoken were of the Muhajireen. (The companions(Radi Allaahu Anhum) who migrated from Mecca to Madina). Prophet ﷺ also wanted the opinion of the Ansaar. (The companions(Radi Allaahu Anhum) from Madina, who helped and supported the companions(Radi Allaahu Anhum) who had migrated from Mecca to Madina). Hazrat Sa'ad Ibne Ubadah(Radi Allaahu Anhu) asked Prophet ﷺ if he ﷺ was referring to the Ansaar. Prophet ﷺ replied in affirmative. Hazrat Sa'ad(Radi Allaahu Anhu) then said, 'O Prophet of Allah! We believe in you and we bear witness to what you have brought is the truth. We give you our firm pledge of obedience and sacrifice, We will obey you most willingly in whatever you command us, and by Allah, who has sent you with the truth'.
A day before the battle, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, with a stick in his hand went to the grounds where the Battle of Badr was fought. With the stick, he ﷺ drew a line and said Abhu Jahl will die here. On the day of the battle, Abu Jahl died exactly on the spot where Prophet ﷺ had drawn the line.
On the night of 17th of Ramadhan, Prophet ﷺ spent the whole night praying. He ﷺ supplicated in the court of Allah Ta'ala, 'O Allah! If the Muslims are defeated today, there will be none left in this world to praise you'.
Prophet ﷺ told Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq(Radi Allaahu Anhu) that the leader of the enemy of Muslims, Abu Jahl and Umayyah would be killed.
Umayyah was killed, and two sons of Ansaar fatally struck Abu Jahl. Hazrat Abdullah Ibne Mas'ud(Radi Allaahu Anhu) grabbed Abu Jahl's beard and climbed on his chest and beheaded him. Allah Ta'ala granted victory to the Muslims. Seventy infidels including twenty-four prominent leaders of Quraysh were killed, and seventy were taken as prisoners.
Allah Ta'ala states in The Holy Quran:
'And verily had Allah helped you at Badr when you were without resources. Then fear Allah that perhaps you may become grateful'
(Surah Ale-Imraan. verse 123)
The Muslim army numbered three hundred and thirteen while the infidels were over one thousand. The Muslim were ill equipped while the enemy was fully equipped.
'(Remember) when you said to the disbelievers: 'is it not sufficient for you that your Lord should assist you by sending down three thousand angels'
(Surah Ale-Imraan. verse 124)
At first, three thousand angels descended to assist the Muslim army, and later more angels descended.
'Yes, why not, if you remain steadfast and become pious, and the infidels come upon you instantly, then your Lord will send five thousand angels with marks for your help'
(Surah Ale-Imraam. verse 125)
These verses prove that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ did have prior knowledge of the assistance coming from Allah Ta'ala in The Battle of Badr. We learn that the Ansaar and Muhajireen who participated in The Battle of Badr are all embodiments of patience and piety testified by The Holy Quran. Angels came down to assist them.
'And this (conquest) was cheerful news for you by Allah that your hearts might be satisfied. There is no help except Allah who is the most Dominant, the Most Wise'
(Surah Ale-Imraan. verse 126)
This article is an abridged English translation of an Urdu sermon delivered by his eminence, Peer Syed Imroz Dean Saifi, Hanfi, Maturidi of Masjid Anwaar e Madina, Surrey BC Canada
If there is an inaccurate translation, please pardon it and not let it be a means to negatively reflect on the honoured presenter.